For commercial banks and large financial firms, “loan contracts” are generally not classified, although “loan portfolios” are often subdivided into “personal” and “commercial” loans, while the “commercial” category is then subdivided into “industrial” and “commercial real estate” loans. “Industrial” loans are those that depend on the cash flow and solvency of the company and the widgets or services it sells. Commercial home loans are those that pay off loans, but this depends on the rental income paid by tenants who lease land, usually for long periods of time. There are more detailed rankings of credit portfolios, but these are always variations around the big topics. The categorization of loan contracts by type of facility generally results in two main categories: revolving credit accounts generally have a simplified application and credit contract process as non-revolving loans. Non-renewable loans – such as private loans and mortgages – often require a broader demand for credit. These types of credit generally have a more formal lending process. This process may require that the credit contract be signed and accepted by both the lender and the customer during the final phase of the transaction process; The contract is considered valid only if both parties have signed it. Institutional credit contracts generally include a lead underwriter.
The underwriter negotiates all the terms of the credit agreement. Terms and conditions include interest rates, terms of payment, duration of credit and possible penalties for late payments. Insurers also facilitate the participation of several parties to the loan as well as all structured tranches that may have their own terms individually. Before entering into a commercial loan agreement, the borrower first decides on his affairs concerning his character, his creditworthiness, his cash flow and all the guarantees he must put in collateral for a loan. These presentations are taken into account and the lender then determines the conditions under which they are willing to advance the money. In these two categories, however, there are different subdivisions, such as interest rate loans and balloon payment credits. It is also possible to underclass whether the loan is a secured loan or an unsecured loan and if the interest rate is fixed or variable. Loan contracts between commercial banks, savings banks, financial companies, insurance companies and investment banks are very different from each other and all feed for different purposes. “Commercial banks” and “savings banks” because they accept deposits and take advantage of FDIC insurance, generate credits that include concepts of “public trust.” Prior to the intergovernmental banking system, this “public confidence” was easily measured by national banking supervisors, who were able to see how local deposits were used to finance the working capital needs of industry and local businesses and the benefits of the organization`s employment. “Insurance agencies,” which charge premiums for the provision of life, property and accident insurance, have entered into their own types of loan contracts.
The credit contracts and documentary standards of “banks” and “insurance” evolved from their individual cultures and were regulated by policies that, in one way or another, met the debts of each organization (in the case of “banks,” the liquidity needs of their depositors; in the case of insurance organizations, liquidity must be linked to their expected “receivables”).