Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is a key element of the integration of competition and includes a single economic market, a common trade policy, a single currency and a common monetary policy. Within the Schengen area, 22 of the 27 EU Member States (excluding Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland and Romania) and the four EFTA members (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) have removed physical barriers to the entire internal market by removing border controls. In 2015, limited temporary controls were re-established in response to the migration crisis at some internal borders. In November 2017, the German Ministry of the Interior decided to subject flights from Greece to extensive screening and withdraw from processing in the Schengen area under Article 25 of the Schengen Agreement. [146] The UK`s future relationship with the internal market is unknown after the UK`s withdrawal from the EU in January 2020. The United Kingdom will continue to participate in the internal market (and thus the four freedoms) and the customs union until the end of the transitional period of December 2020. Economic union is a concept that applies to a trading bloc that has both a common market between members and a common trade policy vis-à-vis non-members, while members are free to pursue independent macroeconomic policies. The Commission monitors the application of EU law and can initiate infringement proceedings against EU countries that comply with them. It monitors the functioning of the internal market and establishes important economic assessments and reports.

The Single Market Forum brings stakeholders together to examine the state of the internal market and contributes to policy evaluation. The forum oversees the implementation of the internal market law. The rules for all products are often neutral, but can have more practical effects on imports than domestic products. The Court has developed more justifications for such “indirect” (or “incriminated” discriminatory measures: either the additional “mandatory” or “superior” requirements under section 36, such as consumer protection, improved labour standards[43] press protection[44] Freedom of the press,[45] Fairness in trade[46] and more: the categories are not closed. [47] In the most famous case, Rewe-Zentral AG/Bundesmonopol for Branntwein,[48] the Court found that a German law that all spirits and liquors (not only imported) must have a minimum alcohol content of 25% is contrary to DenAEU`s Article 34, since it had a more negative effect on imports. German liqueurs were more than 25% alcoholic, but Cassis de Dijon, which Rewe-Zentrale AG wanted to import from France, had only 15 to 20% alcohol. The Court rejected the German government`s argument that the measure adequately protected public health under section 36[49], given that stronger beverages were available and that appropriate labelling would be sufficient for consumers to understand what they had purchased. [50] This rule applies primarily to requirements for the content or packaging of a product. In the case of Walter Rau Lebensmittelwerke/De Smedt PVBA,[51] the Court of Justice held that a Belgian law requiring beechslers in cube-shaped packaging is contrary to Article 34 and is not justified by the search for consumer protection.

The argument that Belgians think it is butter if it is not cube-shaped is disproportionate: it “would significantly exceed the requirements of the object in question” and labelling “would protect consumers equally effectively”. [52] In a 2003 case, the Italian legislation of the Commission against Italy[53] required that cocoa products containing other vegetable fats should not be labelled as “chocolate”.