Kyoto Protocol, 2005. The Kyoto Protocol [PDF], adopted in 1997 and entered into force in 2005, was the first legally binding climate treaty. It called on industrialized countries to reduce emissions by an average of 5% from 1990 levels and set up a system to monitor countries` progress. But the treaty did not force developing countries, including the major CO2 emitters China and India, to take action. The United States signed the agreement in 1998, but never ratified it and then withdrew its signature. Despite the diplomatic success of 195 Member States (SS) which have agreed on a follow-up text and a legally binding text, the effectiveness of the Palestinian Authority continues to be thoroughly examined. Given the initial commitments, which were sorely lacking in ambition (United Nations Environment Programme 2019) – and the reduction of global emissions (Friedlingstein et al. 2019) – Many are skeptical about the feasibility of a pledge and review mechanism to ensure the emissions reductions needed to keep global temperatures well below the 2oC threshold (and the much more ambitious threshold of 1.5 degrees Celsius) (Cramton et al 2017). Similar efficacy issues arise for other mechanisms detailed in the AP (Spash 2016, Pauw et al 2018, Schoenefeld et al 2018, Oh 2019).

Therefore, the ongoing negotiations on the Paris rules and the subsequent operationalization of the many mechanisms that the Palestinian Authority intends to implement will be of the utmost importance in deciding whether the objectives of the Palestinian Authority can be achieved or not (Bodansky 2016). The United States, the world`s second-largest emitter, is the only country to withdraw from the agreement, a move by President Donald J. Trump that came into effect in November 2020. Some other countries have not officially approved the agreement: Angola, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq, Libya, South Sudan, Turkey and Yemen. Information on these developments and assisting decision-makers in the successful implementation of palestinian Authority mechanisms therefore remain an essential task for academic research. Although there is research that supports and challenges the effectiveness of PA, no attempt has been made to systematically synthesize this area of research, as existing audits do not have systematic methods (Petticrew and Mccartney 2011, Minx et al.2017) or too closely (see page 4 of the protocol in the supplementary documents for an overview of existing reviews). We provide new evidence of the effectiveness of the Paris Agreement by systematically mapping the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first application of systematic synthesis of data in this area of literature.

In addition, we offer conceptual advances, evaluation of the AP by pilots, obstacles and recommendations for efficiency.