UN Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon called on world leaders to agree on an agreement to curb global warming at the 69th session of the UN General Assembly on 23 September 2014 in New York. The next climate summit was held in Paris in 2015, the date of the Paris Agreement, which succeeded the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty that extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which requires States Parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that global warming is taking place (part 1) and (part two) it is very likely that human-caused CO2 emissions are the majority cause. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, and came into force on 16 February 2005. There are currently 192 parties (Canada withdrew from the protocol as of December 2012). While the enhanced transparency framework is universal and the global inventory is carried out every five years, the framework must provide “integrated flexibility” to distinguish the capabilities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework. [58] The agreement recognizes the different circumstances of some countries and notes, in particular, that the technical review of experts for each country takes into account the specific capacity of that country to report. [58] The agreement also develops a capacity-building initiative for transparency to help developing countries put in place the necessary institutions and procedures to comply with the transparency framework. [58] The objective of the agreement is to reduce global warming as described in Article 2, in order to improve the implementation of the UNFCCC through:[11] of the Kyoto Protocol, a pioneering environmental agreement adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, and this is the first time that nations have agreed on country emission reduction targets. The protocol, which only came into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for industrialized countries, based on the fact that they are responsible for most of the world`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States first signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W. Bush argued that the agreement would hurt the U.S.

economy because developing countries such as China and India would not be included. In the absence of the participation of these three countries, the effectiveness of the treaty was limited, as its objectives covered only a small fraction of total global emissions. In 2011, Canada, Japan and Russia said they would not meet other Kyoto targets. [106] The Canadian government announced on December 12, 2011, effective December 15, 2012, its possible withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol, effective December 15, 2012[107] Canada has committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions to 6% below 1990 levels by 2012, but in 2009 emissions were 17% to 190 higher. The Harper government has prioritized oil sands development in Alberta and de-introduced the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Environment Minister Peter Kent called Canada`s responsibility for “enormous financial sanctions” under the treaty unless he withdrew. [106] [108] He also suggested that the recently signed Durban Agreement could provide another way forward. [109] The Harper government has said it will find a “Made in Canada” solution. Canada`s decision was generally not well received by representatives of other ratification countries.

[109] The Paris Agreement [3] is an agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions and was signed in 2016.